Water Transport Solutions in Ancient Rome

With the construction of the very first elevated aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, people who lived on the city’s foothills no longer had to depend strictly on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. win472__42715.jpg Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the only technological innovations around at the time to supply water to locations of higher elevation. Beginning in the sixteenth century, a newer strategy was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sectors to supply water to Pincian Hill. Spanning the length of the aqueduct’s passage were pozzi, or manholes, that gave access. The manholes made it less demanding to maintain the channel, but it was also possible to use buckets to remove water from the aqueduct, as we witnessed with Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi when he bought the property from 1543 to 1552, the year he passed away. He didn’t get enough water from the cistern that he had constructed on his residential property to gather rainwater. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat under his property, and he had a shaft opened to give him access.

Architectural Sculpture in Historic Greece

Historically|Traditionally|In the past}, most sculptors were compensated by the temples to embellish the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the gods, however as the era came to a close it grew to be more accepted for sculptors to portray ordinary people as well because many Greeks had begun to think of their institution as superstitious rather than sacred. In some cases, a interpretation of wealthy families' ancestors would be commissioned to be placed within huge familial burial tombs, and portraiture, which would be copied by the Romans upon their conquest of Greek civilization, also became commonplace. A time of artistic development, the use of sculpture and other art forms transformed during the Greek Classical period, so it is not entirely accurate to say that the arts provided only one function. It could be the modern quality of Greek sculpture that grabs our awareness these days; it was on a leading-edge practice of the classic world regardless of whether it was made for religious purposes or artistic pleasure.

The Father Of Roman Fountain Design

There are any number of famed Roman water features in its city center. One of the greatest sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini fashioned, conceptualized and constructed nearly all of them. Also a city architect, he had skills as a water feature designer, and marks of his life's work are apparent throughout the avenues of Rome. To totally exhibit their art, chiefly in the form of public water fountains and water fountains, Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately relocated in Rome. The young Bernini was an exemplary worker and won encouragement and backing of important artists as well as popes. Initially he was renowned for his sculpting skills. He made use of his expertise and melded it seamlessly with Roman marble, most notably in the Vatican. He was influenced by many a great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest effect on his work.

Your Patio: An Ideal Spot for a Wall Fountain

The area outside your residence can be polished up by including a wall or a garden fountain to your landscaping or garden project. Modern-day designers and fountain builders alike use historical fountains and water features to shape their creations. You can also reinforce the connection to the past by incorporating one of these to your home's interior design. The advantage of having a garden fountain extends beyond its beauty as it also appeals to birds and other wildlife, in addition to harmonizing the ecosystem with the water and moisture it emits into the atmosphere. Birds drawn to a fountain or bird bath often scare away irksome flying invaders, for instance.

The space required for a cascading or spouting fountain is considerable, so a wall fountain is the perfect size for a small yard. Either a freestanding fountain with an even back and an attached basin set against a fence or a wall, or a wall-mounted style which is self-contained and hangs on a wall, are some of the options from which you can choose. A fountain can be added to an existing wall if you include some sort of fountain mask as well as a basin to collect the water at the bottom. It is best not to undertake this job on your own as skilled plumbers and masons are more suitable to do this kind of work.

Pick from Many Exterior Wall Fountain Styles

Wall fountains are well suited to small verandas or yards because they do not take up too much space while also adding a bit of flair and providing a great place to find peace and quiet. The myriad of styles in outdoor wall fountains, including traditional, classic, contemporary, or Asian, means that you can find the one suitable to your tastes. If you are looking for a distinctive design, a custom-made one can be specially made to fit your specifications.

Mounted and stand-alone water features are available on the market. Small, self-contained models can be hung on a wall are known as mounted wall fountains.

Fountains of this kind need to be light, therefore, they are usually made of resin (resembling stone) or fiberglass. Stand-alone fountains, often referred to as floor fountains, are sizable, have a basin positioned on the ground and a smooth side which leans against a wall. Typically constructed of cast stone, this kind of water feature is not limited in weight.

Customized fountains which can be integrated into a new or existing wall are often prescribed by landscaping designers. The basin and all the required plumbing are best installed by a trained mason. A fountain mask or a spout also needs to be incorporated into the wall. The cohesive look provided by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the scenery instead of an afterthought.

The Dissemination of Outdoor Fountain Design Innovation

The circulated documents and illustrated pamphlets of the day contributed to the advancements of scientific technology, and were the primary means of dissiminating practical hydraulic concepts and water fountain ideas all through Europe. An un-named French water fountain designer was an internationally famed hydraulic pioneer in the late 1500's. His competence in developing gardens and grottoes with integrated and ingenious water features began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. The publication, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” authored towards the end of his lifetime in France, became the fundamental writing on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. The publication updated important hydraulic discoveries since classical antiquity as well as detailing modern day hydraulic technologies. Prominent among these works were those of Archimedes, the developer of the water screw, a mechanical means of moving water. A pair of undetectable vessels warmed by the sun's rays in a room next to the creative fountain were found in an illustration. Activating the water feature is heated water which expands and ascends to seal up the water lines. Yard ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature creations are incorporated in the book.

The Dispersion of Fountain Design Knowledge
Throughout the European countries, the primary means of dissiminating practical hydraulic understanding and fountain design ideas were the published... read more
The Original Water Feature Creative Designers
Water fountain designers were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci as a imaginative... read more
Modern Water Fountains And Public Health
The first example of a soda tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was passed by the city of Berkley, California. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to motivate more people to select healthier options, such as water. First,... read more
Wall Fountains Hydro-Statics 101
All liquids in a state of equilibrium exert pressure on the materials it comes in contact with. The force used falls into one of two categories: external force or hydrostatic energy. When used against a level surface, the liquid... read more
Classic Greece: The Roots of Garden Statue Design
Sculptors ornamented the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the greek gods until the period came to a close and most Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred; at that instant, it became more... read more


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