The Dispersion of Outdoor Fountain Design Technology

The published papers and illustrated pamphlets of the day contributed to the advancements of scientific innovation, and were the chief methods of dissiminating useful hydraulic information and water feature suggestions all through Europe. p-682__22083.jpg An un-named French water feature engineer was an internationally famed hydraulic innovator in the late 1500's. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he started his work in Italy, acquiring knowledge in garden design and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water features. The text, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” penned near the end of his lifetime in France, turned out to be the definitive writing on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. The publication updated crucial hydraulic discoveries since classical antiquity as well as detailing contemporary hydraulic technologies. As a mechanized method to shift water, Archimedes invented the water screw, key among crucial hydraulic discoveries. An decorative water fountain with sunlight heating the water in two vessels stashed in a neighboring room was shown in one illustration. What occurs is the hot water expanded, rises and closes up the conduits heading to the fountain, thereby leading to activation. Models for pumps, water wheels, water attributes and outdoor ponds are also included in the publication.

Rome’s Ingenious Water Transport Solutions

Aqua Anio Vetus, the first raised aqueduct founded in Rome, commenced providing the many people living in the hills with water in 273 BC, even though they had relied on natural springs up until then. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the only techniques around at the time to supply water to locations of greater elevation. To provide water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they utilized the new process of redirecting the current from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. All through the length of the aqueduct’s channel were pozzi, or manholes, that gave entry. Though they were primarily developed to make it possible to service the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi began using the manholes to gather water from the channel, commencing when he bought the property in 1543. It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to meet his needs. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat directly below his property, and he had a shaft opened to give him accessibility.

Modern Water Fountains And Public Policy

The first example of a sugary drinks tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. The tax is thought to decrease sugary drink consumption and augment the consumption of healthier beverages, including water from fountains. The aim of the research was to evaluate the state of community drinking water fountains and figure out if there is a distinction in access to fresh, operating drinking fountains based on racial or economic components. The research utilized a GPS app to gather data on current water fountains in the city. This information was cross-referenced with demographic data on race and income acquired from the US Census Community Study database. By cross-referencing the water fountain sites with the demographic facts, they were able to ascertain whether access to functioning fountains was class dependent. The surrounding demographics of each water fountain location was made note of, while additionally determining whether race or income levels made a difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The fact that the fountains were working was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, as quite a few were in need of maintenance and repair.

Agrippa's Amazing, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Technology

Sadly, Agrippa’s great plan for lifting water was not discussed much following 1588, when Andrea Bacci acknowledged it widely. It may possibly have come to be dated when the Villa Medici was enabled to obtain water from the Acqua Felice, the early modern aqueduct, in 1592. The better reason is that it was disregarded about when Ferdinando left for Florence in 1588, after the demise of his brother Francesco di Medici, to exchange his position as cardinal for one as the Grand Duke of Tuscany. #P# There might have been other impressive water-related works in Renaissance landscapes in the later part of the sixteenth century, such as water fountains that played tunes, water caprices (or giochi d’acqua) and even scenographic water demonstrations, but none was powered by water which defied gravitation.

The Godfather Of Rome's Public Fountains

In Rome’s city center, there are countless famous fountains. One of the most distinguished sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, conceptualized and built almost all of them. Traces of his life's efforts are evident throughout the streets of Rome because, in addition to his abilities as a fountain builder, he was also a city builder. Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately moved to Rome, in order to fully express their art, primarily in the form of public water fountains and water features.

The young Bernini was an great worker and won encouragement and backing of important painters as well as popes. At first he was renowned for his sculpting skills. Most famously in the Vatican, he used a base of expertise in classic Greek architecture and melded it effortlessly with Roman marble. Though he was influenced by many, Michelangelo had the most serious impact on him, both personally and professionally.

Architectural Sculpture in Ancient Greece

Historically|Traditionally|In the past}, most sculptors were compensated by the temples to decorate the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the gods, however as the era came to a close it grew to be more common for sculptors to portray ordinary people as well because many Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Affluent families would occasionally commission a rendition of their ancestors for their big familial tombs; portraiture also became frequent and would be appropriated by the Romans upon their acquisition of Greek civilization. A time of aesthetic development, the use of sculpture and other art forms morphed through the Greek Classical period, so it is inaccurate to assume that the arts provided only one function. Greek sculpture was actually a modern part of antiquity, whether the explanation was faith based fervor or aesthetic fulfillment, and its contemporary excellence may be what endears it to us today.

How Mechanical Concepts of Fountains Spread
Contributing to the advancement of scientific technology were the published papers and illustrated books of the day. They were also the primary means of transferring useful hydraulic information and... read more
"Old School" Fountain Designers
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"Old School" Water Fountain Creative Designers
Commonly working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain designers were multi-faceted individuals from the 16th to the late 18th century. Exemplifying... read more
Garden Fountain Designers Through History
Commonly serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and discerning scholars, all in one, fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century. Exemplifying the Renaissance... read more
The Father Of Roman Garden Fountain Design And Style
There are countless celebrated water features in Rome’s city center. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the best sculptors and artists of the 17th century developed, conceived and produced... read more


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