The Circulation of Water Fountain Industrial Knowledge in Europe

The circulated papers and illustrated publications of the day contributed to the development of scientific technology, and were the chief methods of dissiminating useful hydraulic facts and fountain suggestions throughout Europe. A globally celebrated innovator in hydraulics in the later part of the 1500's was a French fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. His experience in designing landscapes and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water attributes began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. s-480__14189.jpg The text, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” penned towards the end of his lifetime in France, turned into the definitive writing on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs were elaborated as well as revisions to crucial classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs in the publication. As a mechanical way to move water, Archimedes invented the water screw, key among vital hydraulic innovations. A pair of undetectable containers warmed by the sun's rays in a space next to the ornamental water fountain were shown in an illustration. The hot water expands and then ascends and shuts the water pipes thereby activating the water fountain. Pumps, water wheels, water features and backyard pond styles are documented in the text.

The Many Styles of Wall Water Fountains

If you want to create a place to relax and add some pizzazz to a small area such as a patio or courtyard, wall fountains are perfect because they do not occupy much space. Traditional, antique, contemporary, or Asian are just a few of the designs you can choose from when looking for an outdoor wall fountain to your liking.

It is possible to have one custom-made if you are unable to find a prefabricated fountain to suit you.

The two kinds of water features available to you are mounted and freestanding models. Small, self-contained mounted wall fountains can be installed on any surface. Wall fountains made of resin (resembling stone) or fiberglass are normally lightweight so they can be easily hung. Free-standing fountains, often referred to as floor fountains, are sizable, have a basin located on the ground and a smooth side which leans against a wall. Typically made of cast stone, this style of water feature is not limited in weight.

Many qualified landscapers favor custom-built fountains which can be incorporated into a brand-new wall or an existing one. The basin and all the necessary plumbing are best installed by a trained mason. The wall will have to have a spout or fountain mask built into it. Custom-built wall fountains add to a unified appearance because they become part of the landscape rather than look like a later addition.

Acqua Vergine: The Answer to Rome's Water Problems

Prior to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in Roma, inhabitants who dwelled on hillsides had to travel further down to get their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t accessible, people living at greater elevations turned to water removed from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. To deliver water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they utilized the emerging method of redirecting the motion from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel.

As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Even though they were primarily planned to make it possible to service the aqueduct, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi started out using the manholes to gather water from the channel, opening when he obtained the property in 1543. He didn’t get an adequate amount water from the cistern that he had built on his residential property to collect rainwater. To provide himself with a more efficient means to assemble water, he had one of the manholes opened up, providing him access to the aqueduct below his residence.

Fountain Engineers Through History

Frequently serving as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-talented people from the 16th to the late 18th century. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was notable as an ingenious intellect, inventor and scientific expert. He carefully annotated his examinations in his now celebrated notebooks about his studies into the forces of nature and the properties and mobility of water. Combining imagination with hydraulic and horticultural talent, early Italian water feature designers modified private villa settings into ingenious water displays complete with symbolic meaning and natural charm. The splendors in Tivoli were created by the humanist Pirro Ligorio, who was widely known for his capabilities in archeology, engineering and garden design. Well versed in humanistic themes and classic scientific texts, other fountain creators were masterminding the excellent water marbles, water properties and water pranks for the countless lands around Florence.

Wall Fountains Hydro-Statics 101

Liquid in a state of equilibrium exerts force on the objects it meets, including its container. There are two forms, hydrostatic load or outside forces. The pressure applied by the liquid against a level wall is equivalent at each point where it makes contact with the wall. An object that’s completely submerged in a fluid that’s in equilibrium experiences vertical power on all points of its body. This is also identified as buoyancy or the Archimedes’ principle. Usually, hydrostatic pressure on a point of liquid is a product of the hydrostatic force applied on it. Examples of these containers can be found in the manner in which a city disperses water, along with its fountains and artesian wells.

Water Features Lost to History

As originally conceived, water fountains were designed to be practical, directing water from streams or aqueducts to the citizens of cities and settlements, where the water could be utilized for cooking food, washing, and drinking. To make water flow through a fountain until the later part of the 1800’s, and produce a jet of water, required the force of gravity and a water source such as a spring or reservoir, situated higher than the fountain. Fountains all through history have been developed as memorials, impressing local citizens and tourists alike. The common fountains of today bear little similarity to the first water fountains. A stone basin, carved from rock, was the 1st fountain, used for containing water for drinking and religious functions. Stone basins are thought to have been 1st used around the year 2000 BC. Gravity was the power source that operated the initial water fountains. Located near reservoirs or creeks, the practical public water fountains provided the local population with fresh drinking water. The Romans began constructing decorative fountains in 6 B.C., most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of animals and mythological heroes. A well-designed system of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public fountains supplied with fresh water.

The Father Of Roman Water Fountain Design
There are countless renowned water fountains in Rome’s city center. One of the best ever sculptors and artists of the 17th century, almost all of them were planned, conceived and built by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Traces of his... read more
California's Garden Fountain Study and Results
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Rome’s Early Water Delivery Systems
Previous to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was established in Roma, inhabitants who dwelled on hills had to journey further down to get their water from natural sources. If people residing at higher elevations did... read more
Agrippa’s Marvelous Water-lifting Machine
Regrettably, Agrippa’s great design for lifting water was not discussed a lot following 1588, when Andrea Bacci praised it widely. Only years later, in... read more
The Outdoor Public Fountains
Water fountains were at first practical in function, used to deliver water from rivers or springs to cities and hamlets, supplying the residents with clean water to drink, bathe, and cook with. In... read more


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