Rome’s Early Water Transport Systems

Previous to 273, when the first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was established in Roma, residents who dwelled on hillsides had to journey further down to collect their water from natural sources. If citizens living at higher elevations did not have accessibility to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to rely on the remaining existing techniques of the day, cisterns that compiled rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from under ground. To offer water to Pincian Hill in the early 16th century, they implemented the new approach of redirecting the circulation from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground channel. During the length of the aqueduct’s network were pozzi, or manholes, that gave entry. win940_dw46108__33955.jpg While these manholes were provided to make it simpler and easier to sustain the aqueduct, it was also possible to use buckets to extract water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he bought the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. It appears that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to fulfill his needs. That is when he made a decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran under his residential property.

Animals and Outdoor Garden Fountains

Be sure to take your pet into consideration when you are considering putting in a water feature. Your pooch could think that your freestanding fountain looks like a big pond to drink from or a pool in which to bathe. Your treasured pets will probably take well to a fountain feature in your outdoor area. Give some thought to the ideal place to put your fountain if you do not want birds to use it as a bathing pond. Installing a birdbath in your yard is the ideal solution if you want to attract birds. To prevent this, however, installing a wall water fountain inside your residence is a great option. These sorts of fountains are perfect for dental and medical offices, not to mention grand estates.

How Technical Designs And Styles of Fountains Spread

Spreading pragmatic hydraulic knowledge and fountain design ideas all through Europe was accomplished with the published documents and illustrated books of the time. An un-named French water feature developer was an internationally renowned hydraulic innovator in the late 1500's. With imperial mandates in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his work in Italy, acquiring knowledge in garden design and grottoes with built-in and imaginative water hydraulics. He wrote a book entitled “The Principles of Moving Forces” towards the end of his lifetime while in France that came to be the essential book on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Explaining modern hydraulic technologies, the book also modified critical hydraulic developments of classical antiquity. As a mechanical way to move water, Archimedes made the water screw, fundamental among key hydraulic advancements. Sunlight heating up liquid in a couple of vessels unseen in a room next to an beautiful water feature was presented in one illustration.

The heated water expands and subsequently ascends and shuts the water pipes thereby activating the fountain. The book also mentions garden ponds, water wheels, water feature concepts.

Public Drinking Fountains in Berkley, Ca

Berkley, CA people voted for a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in February 2014, the first of its kind in the United States. By making soda more expensive, it’s assumed that individuals will make healthier choices for what their children drink, like water for instance. Efforts were made to find out the condition of local drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. Information on the city’s drinking water fountains were pulled together using a GPS created exclusively for the research. Demographic data on race and earnings was then gathered using the US Census database. The two data sets were reviewed to identify what class variances, if any, there were in access to working water fountains. The evaluation was able to pinpoint the demographics of areas with water fountains, also observing whether the condition of the fountains was better or worse in lower class neighborhoods. While the bulk of the fountains were in working order, an escalating number were uncovered to be in a bad state of repairs.

Characteristics of Garden Sculpture in Archaic Greece

The initial freestanding sculpture was developed by the Archaic Greeks, a distinguished achievement since until then the only carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and columns. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi, considered by the Greeks to portray beauty, had one foot stretched out of a strict forward-facing posture and the male figurines were regularly nude, with a powerful, sturdy physique. In about 650 BC, the variations of the kouroi became life-sized. A huge age of transformation for the Greeks, the Archaic period introduced about more forms of state, expressions of art, and a greater appreciation of people and customs outside of Greece. Notwithstanding, these conflicts did little to impede the development of the Greek civilization.

Agrippa’s Intriguing Water-lifting Gadget

The admiration Agrippa’s water-lifting creation was given from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was short-lived.

It could perhaps be that in 1592 when Rome’s most recent conduit, the Acqua Felice, started providing the Villa Medici, there was simply no longer much usage for the system. Even though its triumph was passing, Camillo Agrippa’s design for raising water was the wonder of its day, transcending anything built in Italy since the days of early Rome. Even though there were other worthwhile water-driven creations either planned or built during the later part of the sixteenth century, like scenographic water exhibits, giochi d’acqua or water caprices, and musical water features, not one was nourished by water like Agrippa’s device.

Creators of the First Outside Garden Fountains
Commonly serving as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to... read more
Ancient Garden Fountain Designers
Often working as architects, sculptors, designers, engineers and cultivated scholars, all in one, fountain creators were multi-talented individuals from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century. Throughout the Renaissance,... read more
The Godfather Of Roman Public Fountains
There are many renowned water fountains in Rome’s city center. One of the most distinguished sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed, conceived... read more
A Practical Guide to Hydrostatics
When in equilibrium, liquid delivers force to its container or any other material it comes in contact with. There are two forms, hydrostatic load or outside forces. ... read more


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