Public Water Fountains in and Around Berkley, California

In February 2014, a levy on sugar-sweetened beverages was passed in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to introduce such a law. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to inspire more people to choose healthier choices, such as water. ft-229__60159.jpg First, the city conducted research to assess whether residents had easy access to functioning drinking water fountains. The research utilized a GPS app to collect data on current water fountains in the city. The US Census Community Study database was used to accumulate information relating to race and economic status in these areas. The two data sets were reviewed to identify what class differences, if any, there were in access to running water fountains. Each water fountain and the demographics of its nearby area were analyzed to reveal whether the site of the fountains or their standard of maintenance demonstrated any connection to income, race, or other points. The cleanliness of various fountains was found wanting, even if most were operating.

Water Transport Solutions in Ancient Rome

Rome’s 1st raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, inhabitants living at higher elevations had to depend on local creeks for their water. Outside of these aqueducts and springs, wells and rainwater-collecting cisterns were the sole technological innovations readily available at the time to supply water to areas of high elevation. Starting in the sixteenth century, a new program was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean sectors to supply water to Pincian Hill. Pozzi, or manholes, were engineered at standard stretches along the aqueduct’s channel. During the roughly nine years he owned the property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi used these manholes to take water from the channel in containers, though they were initially built for the purpose of cleaning and maintaining the aqueduct.

It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t enough to meet his needs. Via an orifice to the aqueduct that flowed under his property, he was in a position to meet his water wants.

The Hellenic Republic: Architectural Sculpture

Although the majority of sculptors were compensated by the temples to adorn the sophisticated columns and archways with renderings of the gods, as the time period came to a close, it became more common for sculptors to represent average people as well because many of Greeks had started to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Affluent families would sometimes commission a rendition of their forefathers for their large family burial tombs; portraiture additionally became common and would be appropriated by the Romans upon their acquisition of Greek society. It is amiss to think that the arts had one aim throughout The Classical Greek period, a time period of creative advancement during which the use of sculpture and other art forms changed. Whether to fulfill a visual craving or to celebrate the figures of religion, Greek sculpture was an artistic method in the ancient world, which may well be what draws our focus currently.

The Wide Range of Outdoor Water Features

Is it possible for you to transform your yard into a paradise of serenity? The comforting feeling provided by outdoor fountains is just one of the benefits of including a water feature in your garden.

The beauty of a spouting fountain can be seen when it propels a stream of shooting water into the air. Large, existing ponds can have one of these built-in without much difficulty. You can find these in community recreational areas or old mansions.

Choose a stylish wall fountain to put outdoors. These types of fountains make for a great addition to your yard even if it is small. Wall fountains are not flashy water features as compared to a spouting fountain. In a very simple process, the water flows out of a spout, trickles down a beautifully textured wall only to be pumped back to the top.

Installing a fountain with a theme depends completely on the style of your garden. If your bungalow or garden is styled in a rustic manner, you should think about adding a classic type of statue, such as a seraph holding the spout, to your fountain.

Contemporary gardens, on the other hand, benefit from something more adventurous. Let your mind run free to select the best option.

Water streams down multiple levels in a tiered fountain. Cascading fountains is another expression used to identify this type of fountain because water flows down multiple levels.

A substantial amount of space is necessary for an outdoor fountain, so another alternative is to install a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. Since the reservoirs necessary for these kinds of fountains are hidden below the ground, you can make the most of the space at your disposal.

Include a Japanese fountain if you are looking for a sense of peace. Bamboo sticks are utilized in this kind of fountain to expel the water. The repetition of water flowing into a bucket or shaped stone is one of the main attributes of this kind of fountain.

One of the many designs of fountain available is the glass fountain. Trellis-style fountains of this kind, feature shaped metalwork which provides a more conventional look. Gardens with numerous sharp edges as well as contemporary shapes and designs are better for these types of water features. The flowing water produces a beautiful effect as it moves down the glass panels. Colored LED lights are also included in some fountains to illuminate the water as it progresses down the sheet of glass. Often made of imitation rock, rock waterfall fountains have water gently trickling down its surface.

In a bubbling rock fountain, a big rock is drilled with openings and then filled in the center with tubes. Low pressure is used to push up the water which then bubbles and gurgles at the top. Water then flows as a slow trickle down the sides of the rock to its base. Little gardens are perfect for this kind of fountain. This sort of fountain, which uses low pressure to move water, is suitable because it stops water from being sprayed around in windy weather.

Powered by sunlight, solar fountains are growing to be increasingly trendy. The advantages of using this type of solar powered fountain is the lack of cables, lowered difficulty in installing them, the decrease in electricity bills, and the beneficial effects they have on our environment. There is no need to choose a specific model of outdoor solar-powered fountain because of the wide range of styles found on the market.

The Function of Hydrostatics In The Design Of Public Fountains

From its housing vessel to other components it comes in contact with, liquid in equilibrium exerts force on every little thing it meets. The force employed falls into one of two categories: external force or hydrostatic energy. The liquid applies the same amount of force to the varied spots that it comes in contact with, provided that the surface is level. All points on an object’s exterior are affected by vertical pressure when the object is entirely submerged in a liquid that’s in a state of equilibrium. These vertical forces are buoyancy, and the concept itself is more fully explained by Archimedes’principle. When hydrostatic force is applied on an area of liquid, this becomes hydrostatic pressure. These concepts are applied to the containers used by plumbing, wells, and fountains.

Creators of the First Fountains

Often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one, from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, fountain designers were multi-talented people, During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci exemplified the creator as a inspired genius, creator and scientific virtuoso. With his tremendous curiosity concerning the forces of nature, he explored the properties and movement of water and carefully documented his findings in his now much celebrated notebooks. Ingenious water exhibits full with symbolic meaning and natural beauty transformed private villa settings when early Italian water fountain designers fused imagination with hydraulic and landscaping skill. The humanist Pirro Ligorio, distinguished for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden design, delivered the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli. Masterminding the fascinating water marbles, water attributes and water pranks for the assorted properties near Florence, some other fountain builders were well versed in humanist issues as well as ancient technical texts.

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