Public Water Fountains in and Around Berkley, Ca

The first implementation of a sugary drinks tax in the USA came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. By taxing sugary drinks, the city hopes to motivate a lot more people to select healthier choices, such as water. ft-107__24651.jpg Efforts were made to find out the condition of local drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. The research utilized a GPS app to compile data on current water fountains in the city. Demographic data on race and earnings was then assembled using the US Census database. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic data, they were in a position to establish whether access to working fountains was class dependent. They were able to confirm the demographics of locations surrounding established fountains, as well as the tidiness and upkeep of fountains across assorted neighborhoods. While the majority of the fountains were in working order, an astonishing number were uncovered to be in a bad state of repairs.

Aspects of Outdoor Statues in Archaic Greece

The first freestanding statuary was designed by the Archaic Greeks, a distinguished accomplishment since until then the sole carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and pillars. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of adolescent and desirable male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were seen by the Greeks to represent beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising rigidity to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and undressing. In 650 BC, life-size variations of the kouroi began to be observed. The Archaic period was tumultuous for the Greeks as they evolved into more sophisticated forms of federal government and art, and obtained more information and facts about the peoples and civilizations outside of Greece. During this time and other durations of historic tumult, clashes often happened, among them battles fought between city-states such as the Arcadian wars and the Spartan invasion of Samos.

The Fundamentals of Hydrostatics

Liquid in a state of equilibrium applies pressure on the objects it meets, including its container. There are two forms, hydrostatic load or external forces. The pressure level applied by the liquid against a level wall is even at every single point where it makes contact with the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will employ vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that subject is fully immersed in the liquid. We refer to this concept as Archimedes’ principle, which deals with the forces of buoyancy.

Liquid acted on by hydrostatic force is then subject to hydrostatic pressure at the point of contact. A city’s water supply system, fountains, and artesian wells are all good examples of the application of these principles on containers.

The Distribution of Outdoor Garden Fountain Engineering Knowledge in Europe

Throughout the European countries, the primary means of dissiminating useful hydraulic understanding and fountain design suggestions were the published pamphlets and illustrated publications of the day, which contributed to the development of scientific development. In the late 1500's, a French water feature developer (whose name has been lost) was the globally renowned hydraulics innovator. His know-how in making landscapes and grottoes with integrated and imaginative water attributes began in Italy and with commissions in Brussels, London and Germany. In France, near the closure of his life, he penned “The Principle of Moving Forces”, a book that became the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Classical antiquity hydraulic discoveries were detailed as well as revisions to crucial classical antiquity hydraulic breakthroughs in the publication. The water screw, a technical way to move water, and devised by Archimedes, was showcased in the book. A pair of concealed vessels warmed by the sun's rays in an area adjacent to the creative fountain were shown in an illustration. The heated water expands and then rises and closes the water lines consequently triggering the fountain. Models for pumps, water wheels, water attributes and garden ponds are also mentioned in the book.

Architectural Statuary in Historic Greece

Even though most sculptors were paid by the temples to decorate the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the gods, as the period came to a close, it became more prevalent for sculptors to depict common people as well mainly because many of Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Portraiture came to be commonplace as well, and would be accepted by the Romans when they conquered the Greeks, and quite often well-off families would commission a depiction of their progenitors to be placed inside their huge familial tombs. During the years of The Greek Classical period, a time of artistic progress, the use of sculpture and many other art forms transformed, so it is erroneous to say that the arts served merely one function.

Greek sculpture is perhaps attractive to us all today because it was an avant-garde experiment in the ancient world, so it doesn't make a difference whether its original function was religious zeal or artistic enjoyment.

Exterior Water Features Come in Lots of Shapes and Sizes

Make your dream a reality by creating an oasis of tranquility in your garden. The comforting feeling provided by outdoor fountains is just one of the benefits of including a water feature in your garden.

Sending a stream of water straight into the air, spouting fountains create a dazzling impression. It is feasible to have one of these installed into an existing, large pond. You may have seen one of these in a recreation area or an old estate.

One of the myriad examples of an outdoor water feature is a classy wall fountain. If you are eager to include a water feature, but are doubtful because you have a small yard, do not hesitate to install one of these. Spouting fountains normally make quite an impact whereas wall features are more of an understated type of water feature. It is simple undertaking wherein a small jet of water propels outwards in front of a splendidly textured wall and then flows down only to be pumped up again.

Your garden’s style dictates whether a themed fountain is suitable for you. A cherub holding a spout is one of the possible kinds of classical-styled statues you can use if you want your fountain to compliment a rustically themed cottage or garden. Something unique and bold could be an alternative for more modern gardens. Let your mind run free to select the best option.

Tiered fountains are alluring because the water runs down multiple levels. Water streaming down multiple levels of this water feature is the chief characteristic of a cascading fountain.

Since outdoor fountains require a great deal of space, think about putting in a wall fountain or a pondless fountain. These types of water features are suitable for an area with limited space because their reservoirs are concealed underground.

Japanese fountains are thought to lend a sense of tranquility and wellness. Bamboo sticks are utilized in this kind of fountain to expel the water. Water then flows into a container or a shaped stone, only to repeat the pattern over and over again.

One of the many styles of fountain available is the glass fountain. Producing a more classical appearance are trellis-style fountains which feature shaped metalwork. Water features of this kind are an excellent alternative for gardens with many sharp edges along with contemporary shapes and design. The water produces a dazzling effect when it streams down the surface of the glass. In some cases, the water is colored by LED lights as it flows over the glass sheets. Often made of imitation rock, stone waterfall fountains have water slowly trickling down its surface.

A large rock drilled with openings which then has pipes inserted into it is what differentiates a bubbling rock fountain. Low pressure is used to spout out the water which then bubbles and gurgles at the top. Flowing towards the base of the fountain, the water returns as a slow dribble down the sides of the rock. Little gardens are perfect for this sort of fountain. Water is moved at low pressure in this type of fountain, so you can rest assured that it will not spray all over should the wind pick up.

Powered by sunlight, solar fountains are growing to be rapidly trendy. The advantages of using this type of solar powered fountain is the lack of cables, lowered difficulty in installing them, the decrease in electric bills, and the favorable effects they have on our ecosystem. The wide-ranging designs in outdoor solar-run fountains signifies you will not have to compromise on style.

A Concise History of the Early Outdoor Water Features
As initially developed, fountains were designed to be functional, directing water from creeks or reservoirs to the inhabitants of cities and settlements, where the water could be used for cooking food, washing, and drinking. To make water flow through a... read more
Choose from all Kinds of Outdoor Water Features
Solar fountains have recently gained in appeal because they are powered by the sun. The advantages of using this type of solar powered fountain is the lack of cables, lowered difficulty in installing them, the decrease in electricity bills,... read more


Home Page