Historic Crete & The Minoans: Wall Fountains

During archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, many sorts of channels have been uncovered. They not merely aided with the water sources, they eliminated rainwater and wastewater as well. Rock and terracotta were the elements of choice for these channels. There were clay pipelines, both round and rectangular as well as waterways made from the same components. twfs013__89973.jpg The cone-like and U-shaped terracotta piping which were found have not been seen in any other civilization. Terracotta pipes were put down below the floor surfaces at Knossos Palace and used to distribute water. The pipes also had other uses including gathering water and diverting it to a primary area for storage. Hence, these pipes had to be effective to: Below ground Water Transportation: This particular system’s hidden nature may mean that it was initially created for some sort of ritual or to distribute water to restricted communities. Quality Water Transportation: Given the indicators, several historians advocate that these conduits were not linked to the common water delivery process, offering the castle with water from a distinctive source.

Garden Fountains And Public Health

The first implementation of a sugary drinks tax in the USA came in February 2014, when it was passed by the city of Berkley, California. By making soda more costly, it’s expected that individuals will make better choices for what their children drink, like water for instance.

The aim of the research was to evaluate the state of community drinking water fountains and figure out if there is a distinction in access to fresh, operating drinking fountains based on racial or economic components. Through content amassed by a mobile GPS app, researchers were able to identify the state of existing water fountains in Berkley. The US Census Community Study database was utilized to amass information relating to race and economic status in these segments. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic information, they were able to ascertain whether access to working fountains was class reliant. The study was able to identify the demographics of areas with water fountains, also observing whether the condition of the fountains was greater or inferior in lower class neighborhoods. The tidiness of lots of fountains was found wanting, even if most were functioning.

How Technical Concepts of Water Fountains Spread

Throughout Europe, the primary means of spreading practical hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the circulated papers and illustrated publications of the day, which contributed to the development of scientific development. An internationally celebrated innovator in hydraulics in the later part of the 1500's was a French fountain designer, whose name has been lost to history. His experience in developing landscapes and grottoes with integrated and brilliant water fountains began in Italy and with mandates in Brussels, London and Germany. The book, “The Principles of Moving Forces,” penned towards the end of his life in France, turned out to be the fundamental text on hydraulic mechanics and engineering. Modernizing principal hydraulic breakthroughs of classical antiquity, the publication also highlights contemporary hydraulic technologies. The water screw, a mechanical way to move water, and devised by Archimedes, was showcased in the book. Two undetectable containers heated up by the sun's rays in a area adjacent to the decorative fountain were shown in an illustration. What occurs is the hot liquid expanded, goes up and closes up the conduits heading to the water fountain, thereby leading to activation. Pumps, water wheels, water attributes and backyard pond concepts are included in the book.

The Original Water Feature Creative Designers

Water feature designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the late 18th century, often serving as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci as a creative genius, inventor and scientific virtuoso exemplified this Renaissance artist.

With his tremendous fascination regarding the forces of nature, he investigated the attributes and movement of water and also carefully annotated his examinations in his now much celebrated notebooks. Transforming private villa configurations into imaginative water showcases full with symbolic meaning and natural beauty, early Italian water feature creators paired resourcefulness with hydraulic and horticultural abilities. The humanist Pirro Ligorio supplied the vision behind the wonders in Tivoli and was renowned for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden concepts. Other water fountain engineers, masterminding the incredible water marbles, water functions and water jokes for the countless mansions near Florence, were tried and tested in humanist subjects and time-honored scientific texts.

Public Water Features Lost to History

The water from creeks and other sources was originally provided to the occupants of nearby towns and cities by way of water fountains, whose purpose was largely practical, not artistic. A supply of water higher in elevation than the fountain was necessary to pressurize the flow and send water spraying from the fountain's spout, a system without equal until the later part of the nineteenth century. Striking and impressive, big water fountains have been constructed as monuments in many civilizations. Simple in design, the very first water fountains didn't look much like modern-day fountains. The 1st known water fountain was a rock basin created that served as a receptacle for drinking water and ceremonial functions. Natural stone basins as fountains have been found from 2,000 B.C.. The jet of water emerging from small jets was forced by gravity, the lone power source builders had in those days. Drinking water was provided by public fountains, long before fountains became decorative public monuments, as striking as they are functional. The Romans began building elaborate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were bronze or stone masks of animals and mythological representations. The City of Rome had an elaborate system of aqueducts that provided the water for the countless fountains that were situated throughout the city.

Ancient Greece: The Roots of Garden Statue Design

Sculptors garnished the lavish columns and archways with renderings of the greek gods until the period came to a close and more Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred; at that point, it grew to be more common for sculptors be paid to depict ordinary individuals as well. Portraiture came to be widespread as well, and would be embraced by the Romans when they defeated the Greeks, and sometimes well-off families would order a depiction of their progenitors to be put inside their grand familial burial tombs. The usage of sculpture and other art forms differed through the years of The Greek Classical period, a duration of creative growth when the arts had more than one objective. Greek sculpture is perhaps fascinating to us today as it was an avant-garde experiment in the historic world, so it does not matter whether its original function was religious zeal or artistic pleasure.

Garden Water Fountain Designers Through History
Fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artisans, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one. Leonardo da Vinci as a... read more
The Godfather Of Rome's Fountains
In Rome’s city center, there are many easily recognized fountains. One of the best ever sculptors and artists of the 17th century, Gian Lorenzo Bernini planned, conceptualized and built almost all of them. He was also a... read more
Public Water Fountains Around Berkley, California
The very first US city to pass a tax on sugary drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. The objective is to get everyone drinking more water and other natural drinks by increasing the price of soda and... read more
The Minoan Society: Fountains
During archaeological excavations on the island of Crete, a variety of sorts of channels have been uncovered. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. They were... read more
Contemporary Statues in Old Greece
Nearly all sculptors were paid by the temples to adorn the intricate columns and archways with renderings of the gods until the time period came to a close and ... read more
Aspects of Outdoor Statuary in Archaic Greece
The first freestanding sculpture was improved by the Archaic Greeks, a distinguished accomplishment since until then the only carvings in existence... read more


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