Free Drinking Fountains in and Around Berkley, Ca

The first example of a soda tax in the USA came in February 2014, when it was passed by the city of Berkley, California. The objective is to get individuals drinking more water and other natural beverages by raising the cost of soda and other sugar-sweetened drinks. Research was conducted to find out the status of local drinking water fountains and whether people from different racial or economical backgrounds had less access to them. or-129-or-130__46721.jpg The research utilized a GPS app to collect data on current water fountains in the city. This info was cross-referenced with demographic data on race and income obtained from the US Census Community Study database. The two data sets were reviewed to identify what class disparities, if any, there were in access to running water fountains. The testing was able to determine the demographics of areas with water fountains, also observing whether the state of the fountains was better or inferior in lower class neighborhoods. Most of the water fountains were dirty or slow or stopped up, in spite of the fact that most fountains worked.

Ancient Greece: Cultural Statues

Sculptors adorned the elaborate columns and archways with renderings of the greek gods until the time came to a close and more Greeks had begun to think of their theology as superstitious rather than sacred; at that time, it became more common for sculptors be paid to depict everyday individuals as well. Rich individuals would often times commission a rendition of their forefathers for their big family burial tombs; portraiture also became common and would be appropriated by the Romans upon their acquisition of Greek civilization. A point of artistic enhancement, the use of sculpture and alternate art forms morphed through the Greek Classical period, so it is not entirely accurate to suggest that the arts provided only one function. Greek sculpture was a modern component of antiquity, whether the cause was religious fervor or visual fulfillment, and its contemporary excellence might be what endears it to us today.

The Public Water Features

Water fountains were at first practical in purpose, used to bring water from canals or creeks to cities and hamlets, supplying the inhabitants with clean water to drink, wash, and prepare food with. To generate water flow through a fountain until the later part of the 1800’s, and create a jet of water, required the force of gravity and a water source such as a spring or lake, positioned higher than the fountain. Striking and impressive, big water fountains have been crafted as memorials in nearly all cultures. If you saw the earliest fountains, you probably would not identify them as fountains. Basic stone basins sculpted from nearby material were the first fountains, used for religious ceremonies and drinking water. The first stone basins are thought to be from about 2000 B.C.. The spray of water appearing from small spouts was pressured by gravity, the only power source builders had in those days. These historic water fountains were designed to be functional, often situated along reservoirs, streams and rivers to supply drinking water. Wildlife, Gods, and religious figures dominated the very early decorative Roman fountains, beginning to show up in about 6 B.C.. A well-designed collection of reservoirs and aqueducts kept Rome's public fountains supplied with fresh water.

Select from Countless Exterior Wall Fountain Styles

Small verandas or courtyards are a perfect place to install wall fountains because they add style to an area with little space. Whatever design of outdoor wall fountain you are looking for whether it be traditional, contemporary, classic, or Asian you will undoubtedly find the one you like most. If you are looking for a unique design, a custom-made one can be specially made to fit your specifications.

Depending on your wishes, you can choose from mounted or freestanding models. Small, self-contained versions can be placed on a wall are known as mounted wall fountains. One of the most important aspects of wall fountains is that they be light, so they are typically made of fiberglass or resin to mirror the look of stone. Floor fountains are freestanding, sizable, and also have a basin on the floor as well as a flat side against the wall. Generally constructed of cast stone, this kind of water feature is not limited in weight.

Landscape designers often propose a individualized fountain for a brand new or existing wall. A skilled mason is required to place the water basin against the wall and correctly install all the plumbing inside or behind the wall. A fountain mask or a spout also needs to be integrated into the wall. If you want a cohesive look for your garden, get a customized wall fountain because it becomes part of the panorama rather than an afterthought.

Garden Fountains: The Minoan Society

On the Greek island of Crete, excavations have discovered conduits of different kinds. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and wastewater. They were typically built from clay or stone. Terracotta was utilized for channels and water pipes, both rectangular and spherical. Among these were terracotta piping which were U-shaped or a shortened, cone-like form which have just showed up in Minoan culture. Terracotta piping were employed to circulate water at Knossos Palace, running up to three meters beneath the floors.

The clay water lines were additionally made use of for gathering and storing water. These terracotta pipelines were used to perform: Subterranean Water Transportation: It’s not quite known why the Minoans needed to transport water without it being enjoyed. Quality Water Transportation: There’s also information that concludes the pipes being made use of to feed water features separately of the domestic technique.

The Circulation of Garden Water Fountains Engineering Knowledge in Europe

The circulated documents and illustrated publications of the day contributed to the development of scientific innovation, and were the primary means of spreading practical hydraulic information and water fountain suggestions throughout Europe. An un-named French water fountain designer was an internationally renowned hydraulic innovator in the later part of the 1500's. With imperial commissions in Brussels, London and Germany, he began his work in Italy, building experience in garden design and grottoes with incorporated and imaginative water features. “The Principles of Moving Forces”, a book which turned into the fundamental book on hydraulic mechanics and engineering, was composed by him toward the end of his lifetime in France. The book modified key hydraulic advancements since classical antiquity as well as describing modern day hydraulic technologies. As a mechanical method to shift water, Archimedes made the water screw, chief among vital hydraulic breakthroughs. An decorative water feature with the sun heating the water in two containers concealed in an adjacent room was shown in one illustration. Actuating the water fountain is heated water that expands and rises to seal up the water lines. Garden ponds as well as pumps, water wheels, and water feature concepts are incorporated in the book.

The Very First Water Features of Human History
As initially conceived, water fountains were crafted to be practical, directing water from streams or aqueducts to the inhabitants of towns and villages, where the... read more
Fountains Lost to History
The water from rivers and other sources was initially provided to the inhabitants of nearby towns and municipalities via water fountains, whose design was mainly... read more


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