Early Water Supply Solutions in The City Of Rome

With the building of the 1st raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to rely strictly on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. When aqueducts or springs weren’t easily accessible, people dwelling at raised elevations turned to water removed from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. In the early 16th century, the city began to utilize the water that flowed beneath the earth through Acqua Vergine to furnish drinking water to Pincian Hill. All through the length of the aqueduct’s network were pozzi, or manholes, that gave entry. During the roughly nine years he owned the property, from 1543 to 1552, Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi employed these manholes to take water from the channel in containers, though they were previously established for the function of cleaning and maintaining the aqueduct. twf004__48973.jpg It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t good enough to meet his needs. Via an orifice to the aqueduct that ran below his property, he was in a position to suit his water desires.

The First Outdoor Fountains

Villages and communities depended on functional water fountains to funnel water for cooking, bathing, and cleaning from nearby sources like ponds, channels, or springs. In the days before electric power, the spray of fountains was driven by gravity alone, often using an aqueduct or water supply located far away in the surrounding mountains. Inspiring and impressive, large water fountains have been designed as memorials in most cultures. Rough in design, the 1st water fountains did not appear much like modern-day fountains. The first known water fountain was a stone basin carved that served as a receptacle for drinking water and ceremonial purposes. Natural stone basins as fountains have been uncovered from 2,000 BC. Early fountains used in ancient civilizations relied on gravity to manipulate the flow of water through the fountain. Positioned near reservoirs or creeks, the functional public water fountains furnished the local citizens with fresh drinking water. The people of Rome began creating ornate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or natural stone masks of wildlife and mythological characters. Water for the community fountains of Rome arrived to the city via a intricate system of water aqueducts.

Outdoor Wall Fountains: The Many Designs Available

If you want to create a place to relax and add some pizzazz to a small area such as a patio or courtyard, wall fountains are perfect because they do not take up much space. When considering the many types of outdoor wall fountains available including traditional, vintage, modern, or Asian, you are certain to find one best suited to your design ideas. While there are countless prefabricated ones on the market, you may need a custom-built fountain if none of these are pleasing to you.

Depending on your needs, you can choose from mounted or freestanding types. Little, self-contained mounted wall fountains can be installed on any surface. Typically made of resin (to resemble stone) or fiber glass, these sorts of fountains are lightweight and easy to hang. Floor fountains are freestanding, big, and also have a basin on the floor as well as a flat side against the wall.

Typically composed of cast stone, this style of water feature is not limited in weight.

Many experienced landscapers favor custom-built fountains which can be integrated into a brand-new wall or an existing one. A professional mason is required to place the water basin against the wall and correctly install all the plumbing inside or behind the wall. A fountain mask or a spout also needs to be integrated into the wall. Customized wall fountains lend to a unified look because they become part of the landscape rather than look like a later addition.

Dogs, Cats and Water Fountains

Be certain to take your pet into consideration when you are thinking about installing a water feature. Pets such as dogs may confuse your freestanding fountain with a large pool to cool down in or a pond from which to drink. Your cherished pets will probably take well to a water element in your yard. Think about the best place to put your water feature if you do not want birds to use it as a bathing pond. Add a birdbath if your objective is to draw birds to your property. The indoor use of wall water fountains is completely possible if wish to prevent these issues. These sorts of fountains are perfect for dental and medical practices, not to mention grand estates.

Garden Fountains And Public Policy

The very first US city to implement a tax on sweet drinks was Berkley, California in February 2014. The taxation is supposed to lessen sugary drink intake and boost the consumption of healthier beverages, including water from fountains. Research was executed to find out the reputation of local drinking water fountains and whether people from different racial or economical backgrounds had less availability to them.

Facts on the city’s drinking water fountains were pulled together using a GPS created specifically for the research. Demographic data on race and income was then gathered using the US Census database. By cross-referencing the water fountain locations with the demographic facts, they were able to establish whether access to functioning fountains was class dependent. Each water fountain and the demographics of its bordering area were examined to reveal whether the location of the fountains or their level of maintenance exhibited any connection to income, race, or other factors. The fact that the fountains were operating was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, considering quite a few were in need of cleaning and repair.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini's Garden Fountains

There are numerous celebrated fountains in Rome’s city center. One of the most distinguished sculptors and artists of the 17th century, virtually all of them were designed, conceived and constructed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. His abilities as a water fountain creator and also as a city architect, are evident all through the avenues of Rome. To completely express their art, chiefly in the form of public water fountains and water fountains, Bernini's father, a renowned Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son, and they ultimately moved in the City of Rome. An diligent worker, the young Bernini earned praise and patronage of many popes and influential designers. At first he was renowned for his sculpting skills. An authority in ancient Greek architecture, he used this knowledge as a starting point and melded it gracefully with Roman marble, most remarkably in the Vatican. Though many artists impacted his artistic endeavors, Michelangelo inspired him the most.

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