Aqueducts: The Answer to Rome's Water Challenges

Previous to 273, when the very first elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was constructed in Rome, citizens who lived on hills had to travel even further down to gather their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t accessible, people dwelling at greater elevations turned to water pulled from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns. 50721md__36443.jpg Beginning in the sixteenth century, a newer system was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean portions to generate water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made reachable by pozzi, or manholes, that were placed along its length when it was initially designed. While these manholes were provided to make it simpler and easier to preserve the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to remove water from the channel, which was utilized by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he bought the property in 1543 to his passing in 1552. Whilst the cardinal also had a cistern to collect rainwater, it couldn't supply a sufficient amount of water. That is when he made the decision to create an access point to the aqueduct that ran underneath his property.

The Wide Array of Designs of Water Wall Fountains

You can design a place to unwind as well as add a touch of style to your porch or yard with a wall fountain since they are great adornments to fit into small space. When considering the many types of outdoor wall fountains available including traditional, vintage, modern, or Asian, you are certain to find one most suitable to your design ideas. It is possible to have one customized if you are unable to find a pre-assembled fountain to suit you.

The two types of fountains available to you are mounted and freestanding models. Mounted wall fountains are small and self-contained versions which can be displayed on a wall. One of the most important aspects of wall fountains is that they be lightweight, so they are normally made of fiberglass or resin to replicate the look of stone. Large-sized free-standing wall fountains, commonly referred to as floor fountains, have their basins positioned on the floor and a flat side leaning on a wall. Normally made of cast stone, these water features have no weight constraints.

Landscape designers often propose a custom-built fountain for a brand new or existing wall. A professional mason is necessary to install the water basin against the wall and correctly install all the plumbing inside or behind the wall. You will need to integrate a spout or fountain mask into the wall. The unified look provided by customized wall fountains make them appear to be part of the landscape instead of an afterthought.

Greece: Architectural Statues

Even though many sculptors were remunerated by the temples to decorate the detailed columns and archways with renderings of the gods, as the time period came to a close, it became more prevalent for sculptors to portray average people as well mainly because many of Greeks had started to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred. Portraiture, which would be accepted by the Romans upon their annexation of Greek society became conventional as well, and wealthy families would often commission a rendering of their forebears to be situated in immense familial tombs.

The use of sculpture and other art forms varied through the many years of The Greek Classical period, a time of artistic growth when the arts had more than one goal. Greek sculpture was actually a modern part of antiquity, whether the reason was religious fervor or visual satisfaction, and its contemporary excellence might be what endears it to us today.

The Original Fountain Manufacturers

Multi-talented people, fountain designers from the 16th to the late 18th century frequently functioned as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one. Leonardo da Vinci as a creative intellect, inventor and scientific expert exemplified this Renaissance artist. He carefully documented his observations in his now renowned notebooks, after his enormous curiosity in the forces of nature inspired him to examine the properties and mobility of water. Early Italian water feature engineers converted private villa configurations into innovative water exhibits full of emblematic meaning and natural charm by combining imagination with hydraulic and horticultural expertise. The humanist Pirro Ligorio brought the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli and was recognized for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden design. Well versed in humanist subject areas as well as ancient scientific texts, other fountain makers were masterminding the fascinating water marbles, water attributes and water jokes for the numerous estates around Florence.

Water Features Recorded by History

Villages and communities depended on practical water fountains to funnel water for preparing food, washing, and cleaning from nearby sources like lakes, channels, or creeks.

A supply of water higher in elevation than the fountain was required to pressurize the movement and send water squirting from the fountain's spout, a system without equal until the later part of the nineteenth century. Fountains all through history have been crafted as monuments, impressing local citizens and tourists alike. If you saw the very first fountains, you would not recognize them as fountains. Basic stone basins created from nearby material were the very first fountains, used for religious purposes and drinking water. Rock basins are believed to have been 1st made use of around 2,000 BC. The force of gravity was the power source that controlled the earliest water fountains. The location of the fountains was determined by the water source, which is why you’ll commonly find them along reservoirs, waterways, or streams. Fountains with ornamental Gods, mythological beasts, and animals began to show up in Rome in about 6 BC, crafted from natural stone and bronze. Water for the open fountains of Rome arrived to the city via a elaborate system of water aqueducts.

Garden Fountains And Obesity

The first implementation of a sugary drinks tax in the US came in February 2014, when it was approved by the city of Berkley, California. The aim is to get individuals drinking more water and other natural beverages by increasing the price of soda and other sugar-sweetened drinks. Attempts were made to find out the condition of neighborhood drinking water fountains in both high- and low-income neighborhoods. Through data amassed by a mobile GPS app, researchers were able to identify the state of active water fountains in Berkley. The US Census Community Study database was utilized to collect information relating to race and economic status in these segments. The researchers looked to use both data sets to figure out if demographics were associated to drinking water fountain access. Each water fountain and the demographics of its bordering area were studied to reveal whether the site of the fountains or their standard of maintenance demonstrated any relationship to income, race, or other points. Most of the water fountains were dirty or plugged, despite the fact that most fountains worked.

How Mechanical Designs of Outdoor Spread
Throughout Europe, the principal means of spreading practical hydraulic facts and fountain design suggestions were the circulated papers and illustrated books of the time, which added to the advancement... read more
The Original Fountain Designers
Often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one, from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, fountain designers were multi-faceted individuals, ... read more
The Original Garden Fountain Creative Designers
Often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one, from the 16th to the late 18th century, fountain designers were multi-faceted people, During the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci exemplified... read more
Agrippa's Amazing, but Mostly Forgotten Water-Lifting Technology
The compliments Agrippa’s water-lifting invention earned from Andrea Bacci in 1588 was short-lived. It may have become outdated when the Villa Medici... read more
Fountains: The Minoan Civilization
Various types and designs of conduits have been found through archaeological excavations on the isle of Crete, the birthplace of Minoan society. They were used for water supply as well as removal of storm water and... read more
Ancient Greece: Architectural Statuary
Historically|Traditionally|In the past}, the vast majority of sculptors were compensated by the temples to embellish the involved columns and archways with renderings of the gods, however as the era came to a close it became more accepted for sculptors to... read more


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