A Brief History of Early Public Water Fountains

alp_gxt698__72495.jpg Towns and villages depended on working water fountains to funnel water for preparing food, washing, and cleaning from nearby sources like lakes, streams, or springs. To produce water flow through a fountain until the later part of the 1800’s, and create a jet of water, mandated gravity and a water source such as a creek or reservoir, located higher than the fountain. Fountains all through history have been created as memorials, impressing hometown citizens and travelers alike. Crude in design, the first water fountains didn't look much like contemporary fountains. Crafted for drinking water and ceremonial purposes, the initial fountains were very simple carved stone basins. Rock basins as fountains have been found from 2000 B.C.. The first fountains used in ancient civilizations relied on gravity to manipulate the flow of water through the fountain. These historic water fountains were created to be functional, usually situated along reservoirs, creeks and rivers to supply drinking water. Fountains with embellished Gods, mythological beasts, and animals began to show up in Rome in about 6 B.C., made from stone and bronze. The people of Rome had an intricate system of aqueducts that supplied the water for the countless fountains that were placed throughout the city.

Bernini's Public Fountains

In Rome’s city center, there are countless celebrated public fountains. One of the best ever sculptors and artists of the 17th century, nearly all of them were planned, conceptualized and constructed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Also a city architect, he had skills as a fountain designer, and records of his life's work are apparent throughout the streets of Rome. Bernini's father, a celebrated Florentine sculptor, guided his young son, and they eventually relocated in Rome, to fully express their art in the form of community water fountains and water features. The young Bernini earned praise from Popes and relevant artists alike, and was an diligent employee. His sculpture was initially his claim to glory.

He made use of his knowledge and melded it seamlessly with Roman marble, most notably in the Vatican. He was affected by many a great artists, however, Michelangelo had the biggest effect on his work.

Ancient Greece: Architectural Statuary

Sculptors adorned the complex columns and archways with renderings of the gods until the time came to a close and most Greeks had begun to think of their religion as superstitious rather than sacred; at that time, it grew to be more common for sculptors be paid to depict ordinary people as well. Portraiture, which would be acknowledged by the Romans upon their annexation of Greek civilization became traditional as well, and thriving families would sometimes commission a portrait of their forebears to be added in immense familial tombs. A time of artistic progression, the use of sculpture and other art forms transformed during the Greek Classical period, so it is inexact to suggest that the arts served only one function. It may possibly be the advanced quality of Greek sculpture that captivates our attention today; it was on a leading-edge practice of the classic world regardless of whether it was created for religious purposes or aesthetic pleasure.

Statuary As a Staple of Classic Art in Historic Greece

The initial freestanding sculpture was developed by the Archaic Greeks, a recognized achievement since until then the only carvings in existence were reliefs cut into walls and columns. Most of these freestanding sculptures were what is known as kouros figures, statues of young, attractive male or female (kore) Greeks.

Symbolizing beauty to the Greeks, the kouroi were created to look rigid and commonly had foot forward; the males were healthy, powerful, and nude. In around 650 BC, the variations of the kouroi became life-sized. A huge age of improvement for the Greeks, the Archaic period brought about new forms of state, expressions of art, and a greater appreciation of people and customs outside of Greece. But in spite of the disputes, the Greek civilization continued to advance, unabated.

The Many Designs of Wall Water Fountains

If you want to have a place to relax and add some pizzazz to a small area such as a patio or courtyard, wall fountains are ideal because they do not take up much space. When considering the many types of outdoor wall fountains available including traditional, vintage, modern, or Asian, you are certain to find one best suited to your design ideas. If you are looking for a distinctive design, a custom-built one can be specially made to fit your specifications.

There are two distinct sorts of fountains you can buy: mounted and free-standing. Mounted wall fountains are little and self-contained variations which can be hung on a wall. Normally made of resin (to look like stone) or fiber glass, these kinds of fountains are lightweight and easy to hang. Stand-alone fountains, often referred to as floor fountains, are sizable, have a basin situated on the ground and a smooth side which leans against a wall. There are no weight limits on these types of cast stone water features.

Custom-made fountains which can be integrated into a new or existing wall are often recommended by landscaping designers. The basin and all the required plumbing are best installed by a qualified mason. A fountain mask or a spout also needs to be integrated into the wall. The unified look produced by custom-made wall fountains make them appear to be part of the landscape rather than an afterthought.

A Layman's Guide to Hydrostatics

From its housing vessel to other materials it comes in contact with, liquid in equilibrium exerts force on everything it touches. These fall into two categories, hydrostatic load or outside force. The pressure applied by the liquid against a level wall is equivalent at every single point where it makes contact with the wall. Liquid in equilibrium will implement vertical pressure at every point of an object’s exterior when that object is fully immersed in the liquid. This applied force is known as buoyancy, while the principle itself is known as Archimedes’ principle. When hydrostatic force is exerted on an area of liquid, this will become hydrostatic pressure. Examples of these containers can be uncovered in the manner in which a city disperses water, along with its fountains and artesian wells.

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